Knock-in

While NHEJ-mediated DSB repair often disrupts the open reading frame of the gene, homology directed repair (HDR) can be used to generate specific nucleotide changes ranging from a single nucleotide change to large insertions like the addition of a fluorophore or tag.

In order to utilize HDR for gene editing, a DNA repair template containing the desired sequence must be delivered into the cell type of interest with the gRNA(s) and Cas9 or Cas9 nickase. The repair template must contain the desired edit as well as additional homologous sequence immediately upstream and downstream of the target (termed left & right homology arms.) The length of each homology arm is dependent on the size of the change being introduced, with larger insertions requiring longer homology arms.